“That there might be no dissension in the body.”
I Corinthians 12:25
Schism. At one time, this was a much used and scary word. While it is not at the forefront of most of our minds today, its underlying meaning still sparks anxiety within us. Schism is the “churchy” word for divorce on a community scale. Thinking of schism only as a "separation from" does not do justice to the term. More to the heart of the matter, schism is a separation "within" the church. There is no way it can happen without someone being hurt. This deeper understanding is made clear in the three passages of scripture where this word is used.
In the first chapter of first Corinthians, Paul pleads with his sisters and brothers to not be divided (schismata) but to be united under a common purpose. Rather than working together under the banner of a common mission, it seems that the Corinthian Church had instead become divided by preferences and personal agendas. Rather than following Christ they had formed alliances around personalities, with some saying “I belong to Paul” and with others giving their allegiance to Apollos or Cephas. The separation in this instance was not from the Church but took place within the Church. In this environment, says Paul, Christ is divided and his witness is damaged.
The second place where this word is used is in the eleventh chapter of the same letter. Again there is division within the body, this time over the nature of the Lord’s Supper. It seems that they were dividing into little parties, eating on their own, and creating a situation where some were left out and hungry. They had created an environment that fostered resentment and turf protecting rather than an environment that promoted forgiveness and reconciliation. That is not appropriate for the Lord’s Supper. When we eat and drink without discerning what it means to be a part of the body of Christ we eat and drink judgment upon ourselves, says Paul.
In this same chapter, Paul uses the word “heresy” to make his point, translated in verse nineteen as “factions.” This word has been distorted for many centuries. By common definition, a heresy is an erroneous opinion or a wrong belief. Naming heresies has been the pretense for many terrible acts, including the destruction of cities and the shedding of innocent blood. But note the horrific irony. While some have killed others in order to wipe out heresy or wrong views, Paul makes it clear that heresies or factions should never lead to schism or war. He says that there must be “factions” among us, various views within the body. Factions or heresies serve a positive purpose. It is amid various perspectives within the community of faith that we learn how to live in love and how to break bread together. This unity might be imaged as a beautiful piece of art with multiple colors coming together. Schisms happen when the goal is uniformity, with the desire that everyone look the same.
There is great danger in linking heresy and schism together in a cause, where heresy is defined in terms of “wrong belief” and schism is justified by claiming “right belief” or “orthodoxy.” It is this kind of thinking that does great harm to the witness of the church. As finite and limited human beings, we just can’t get that hung up on beliefs. If we do, we will miss the opportunity to learn how to love. Relationships matter more than opinions about doctrine. When this connection is made between heresy and schism, we are likely to find ourselves fighting with shadows of our own raising and combating, perhaps with violence, a sin which has no existence but in our own imagination. We find ourselves lost in a house of mirrors, unable to see others as children of God.
The only other instance of this word is in the twelfth chapter of the same letter where Paul uses the image of the body with many parts to describe the church. He calls us to give honor to all parts, and the greater honor to the seemingly more insignificant parts. Following this principle will help ensure that there is no “dissension” (schism) within the body but rather an environment of mutual care and concern. For, as in the body, if one part suffers, all suffer; if one part is honored, all rejoice together. This is the goal and hope of the church. Schism, in this instance, points to a shortage of love that manifests a division of heart and fragmentation within the body. When we break with the body we bring spiritual harm to ourselves.
So what are the implications of all this? Well, we must conclude that the act of causing a split within a body of living Christians is a grievous breach of love. It is the nature of love to unite us together. It is only when our love grows cold that we can think of separating from the community in this way. The pretenses for separation may be innumerable, but lack of love is always the real cause; otherwise, those wanting to separate would work hard to hold the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.
Take a good look at the effects of schism. It opens the door to many destructive emotions and harmful dispositions -- anger, resentment, sadness, depression, bitterness, malice, and hatred, creating a present hell for those involved. Sadly and ironically, the arrogance of schism can manifest itself in the name of loyalty to God and to the true way.
But some will make the case that they had to leave because they could not continue with a clear conscience. The former community was causing them to sin or not allowing them to use their gifts. Well, if this is truly the case, then they cannot be blamed for leaving. There are situations where one must make this choice. Leaving the church can be seen as multiplication rather than division, and can be a good thing. But even here, make sure the motivation is calling and conscience and not condemnation. We must ask ourselves, is this worth the risk? Is this desire to leave and form a new church born in our ego or in God?
To conclude, if your faith is not yet deeply rooted in a community, then you have freedom to explore. Find a place where you can plant yourself more deeply and begin to grow and bear good fruit. But for those who are already so planted, then take care how you tend the body of Christ. Do not get caught up in wars over opinions. Shun the very beginning of strife. Be a peace-maker. Do not lay more stumbling blocks in the way of these others for whom Christ died. Realize that this is what happens when we give energy to schisms within the body. Above all else, let love be your rule, knowing that love always unites rather than divides; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.